Friday, February 19, 2010

An overview of Bloom, Gagne, Keller, and Kirkpatrick

My last two weeks of Grad School have been spent discussing Blooms Taxonomy, Gagne’s 9 events of instruction, Kirkpatric’s 4 Levels of Evaluation, and Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivation. Over the next few blogs, I’d to go into detail on each, but first a brief overview of each.

Benjamin Bloom
developed a taxonomy of three learning domains including: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor. So far we have managed to cover the Cognitive Domain, which focuses on the acquisition of knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. There are six levels of behavior; each must be mastered before going on to the next. From the simplest to the most complex, they are:

1) Knowledge
2) Comprehension
3) Application
4) Analysis
5) Synthesis
6) Evaluation

In my next blog I will go more into detail on each of these.

The Cognitive Domain can be used to help design instruction. Start by designing instruction at the knowledge level, and work your way up to the evaluation level. Although, training in the workplace rarely goes through all six levels.

Robert Gagne originally created an instructional design model (known as the nine events of instruction) based on behaviorist methods. However, as the cognitive movement came about, he adapted his ID model to incorporate Cognitivist and Constructivist applications.

The Nine Events are:

1) Gain Attention
2) Inform Learners of their objectives
3) Stimulate and Recall Prior Learning
4) Present the content
5) Provide “Learning” guidance
6) Practice
7) Provide Feedback
8) Assess Performance
9) Provide Retention and Transfer to the job

Gagnes’ nine events are an excellent instructional design model that incorporates recalling prior knowledge, and making sure the training transfers to the job, which is really the point of training in the first place.

Motivation is a key element in the learning process. As a way to promote motivation in learning, John Keller designed what he called the ARCS Model of Motivation. ARCS stands for:

Attention – Gain and keep the learners attention
Relevancy – Make the material relevant to the learner
Confidence – Find ways to make the learner confident that they are “getting it”
Satisfaction – Make sure the training is satisfying and rewarding to the learner

Notice the word “Learner” appears in every part of the ARCS Model. That’s because as you move from behaviorist to cognitive approaches, the trainer becomes less responsible for what learning occurs, and the learner becomes more responsible. After using Gagne’s 9 events of instruction to develop a training course, you can go back through and apply the ARCS model to ensure you are addressing the learner’s motivation.

In the late 1950’s, Donald Kirkpatrick came out with a training evaluation model, which happened to include four levels:

Level 1 Reaction: What was the learner’s reaction to the training?

Level 2 Learning: Has learning improved as a result of the training they received?

Level 3 Performance: Did the training transfer to the job?

Level 4 Results: Did the training have an effect on organizational goals?

Training departments can take the information learned from these evaluations and improve their training, as well as provide statistical evidence that their work is making a quantitative and qualitative difference to the organization.

I am anxious to discuss this evaluation model in the future after a recent webinar with Jim Kirkpatrick (Donald’s Son).